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(June 2021)
is available for download

TCF newsletter 2019

See also:
news letter 2019 November
news letter 2019 Augustus
news letter 2018

Project downloads

Check out our project pages for information and downloadable documents and data:


Senshi Sōsho


military history1

Board members, associates of The Corts Foundation and independant researchers have published papers and presentations to contribute to the goals and mission of the Foundation. They are given a platform here to publish their work. Visitors of this website who would like to contribute as well are invited to contact the Secretary General of The Corts Foundation.
Papers that are selected will be published in PDF on this website of the Foundation, by default under the Creative Commons licence CC-BY-NC.

cc by nd

Full Title: ‘Does Handwriting Text Recognition Work for Damaged Archives?'

By Marco Roling, 2020, Indepedent Research


2015 DiplLetters bundle ENG coverHandwriting Text Recognition (HTR) is used on a large scale for digitized archives, but so far experiments have focused on manuscripts with a high standard of preservation and legibility. This paper describes some controlled experiments done on text samples with various types and degrees of archival damage, in order to assess their suitability for HTR.

Also some ideas are expressed about how to predict the success of HTR when it is applied to large volumes of scans. Lastly, it is suggested to enhance scans before subjecting them to the HTR process, with the intention to further improve the overall quality of automated transcriptions.

Read and download the full version in English (PDF) >>



Full Title: ‘New Technologies and the Practice of Early Modern Global History: Studying Connection in a Connected World'

By Adam Clulow, 2019, in: Sixteenth Century Journal: The Journal of Early Modern Studies


2015 DiplLetters bundle ENG cover

The Sixteenth Century Journal is the leading journal focused on publications (research articles and book reviews) about the 16th century. However, it’s field of interest is broadly defined, as is its time frame (1450-1648). In his article historian Adan Clulow stresses to use in a time of austerity at universities “New Technologies and the Practice of Early Modern Global History: Studying Connection in a Connected World” (See the first installment of the 50e volume).

Clulow describes the options for academic publications and research, which the ‘Digital Archive System at ANRI- project’ of the Arsip Nasional R.I. and the Corts Foundation (see:http://www.sejarah-nusantara.anri.go.id/ ) offer. In rich detail the development of the fascinating ‘Amboina conspiracy trial’ at Ambon in all its aspects is made clear; including the way it has contributed to the legal findings around the verdict (See: https://amboyna.org/ ). The article concludes by stressing the importance of the “The International Conference for Undergraduate Research” (See: (https://www.icurportal.com/ ). ICUR facilitates more than thousand students of eleven academic institutions to present in real- time their findings for a worldwide audience.

In this way Clulow shows the way how new challenges and myriad opportunities are offered as technology has shifted the contours of what is possible in unprecedented ways.

Read and download the full version in English (PDF, 0.2 mb) >>



Full title: ‘You Engage and Then You See’ - The Battle of the Java Sea from a Japanese Perspective

By Dr. W.G.J. Remmelink, 2019, in: Militaire Spectator, volume 188-3, p 112-121


2015 DiplLetters bundle ENG cover

This paper has been presented by Willem Remmelink at the launch of the English translation of the Senshi Sosho volume 26 on September 24th. 2018 in Leiden. The translation and editing of the volume was done with the project support and funding of The Corts Foundation.

The volume concerns especially the battle of the Java Sea in 1942, where the allied navy, under the command of the Dutch naval officer Karel Doorman, was defeated by the invading Japanese war ships. The volume shows the Japanese perspective of this naval battle and thus is important to WWII historians world wide. 

Read and download the full version in English (PDF, 0.5 mb) >>



Full title: VOC Glossary Indonesia

By The Corts Foundation, KITLV and ANRI, 2018


2015 DiplLetters bundle ENG cover

Reading and interpreting texts from the 17th and 18th century can be challenging because of the use of words and spelling that differs from modern Dutch. A glossary or list of terms can help reseachers to interpret centain words and to understand the origin of that word. The VOC archives in the National Archives of Indonesia (ANRI) contain numerous words that come from Dutch but also from the local asian region and other areas.

Mona Lohanda (senior archivist at ANRI) had made a first selection of terms from the VOC archives, especially from the marginalia of the Daily Journals of Batavia Castle. These terms are all described and translated into Dutch, Indonesian and English. The ethymology of these terms (the study of the linguistic origin) is researched by Dr. Tom Hoogenvorst of KITLV Leiden and this origin is added to the glossary. This makes the glossary as published here very much unique. 

This glossary results from the DASA project that has been conducted by TCF and ANRI for many years. All results are accessible on the Indonesian website sejarah-nusantara.anri.go.id and available for download, but also here (see below). 

The following persons have contributed to the realization of this glossay, with thanks:

  • Dr. Mona Lohanda, senior archivist ANRI
  • Dr. Tom Hoogervorst, Asian linguistic KITLV Leiden
  • Dhr. Marco Roling MA, information designer TCF
  • Ms. Nurhayu Santoso, indonesian translator

Read and download the full version in English (PDF, 2 mb) >>


Full title: The Diplomatic Correspondence between The Kingdom of Siam and The Castle of Batavia during the 17th and 18th centuries.

By The Corts Foundation and ANRI, 2018


2018 DiplLetters SIAM ENG coverThe selection of letters that were sent to and received from the king of Siam was a follow-up of the first project about the 'Diplomatic Letters'. Additional articles were written about these unique letters. The selected letters were documented extensively and introduced scientifically.

The Dutch texts in the original handwritings were translated into Indonesian and English and in this case also in the Thai language, to be accessible for a very broad international audience. The articles are bundled in this publication. More information can be found on the Indonesian website of Sejarah Nusantara.

Read and download the full contents in English (PDF, 28 mb) >>



By J. C. Snellen van Vollenhoven, 2017


2017 IndieHerdenking2017On the occasion of the national commemoration on August 15th, 2017 of the capitulation of Japan in World War II, Joan Snellen van Vollenhoven has given an interview after invitation to NOS, the Dutch broadcasting company, about the Japanese occupation of Indonesia.

The interview was held on August 3rd, 2017 at Bronbeek, museum and knowledge center of the Colonial-military past of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

Personal notes (in Dutch) in preparation for this interview were made by Joan Snellen van Vollenhoven and provided here in full version as download >>


Full title: The Diplomatic Correspondence between Asian Rulers and Batavia Castle during the 17th and 18th centuries: The Digital Reconstruction of a lost Treasure.

By The Corts Foundation and ANRI, 2015


2015 DiplLetters bundle ENG cover

The project about the 'Diplomatic Letters' has been part of the TCF-project 'Digital Archive Systems at ANRI' and resulted in articles that were written about these unique letters. The articles represent the nature of the more than 4300 letters that were sent to Batavia during several decennia, and some of the answers to these letters. The letters that were selected are documented extensively and introduced scientifically.

The Dutch texts in the original handwritings are translated into Indonesian and English to be accessible for a broad international audience. The articles are bundled in this publication. More information can be found on the Indonesian website of Sejarah Nusantara.

Read and download the full contents in English (PDF, 12 mb) >>


redevanternateFull title: The Theatrical Peace: Honour, Protocol and Diplomacy in the Balance of Power between the United East India Company and Ternate c. 1750

By Dr. Hendrik E. Niemeijer

(© H.E. Niemeijer, May 2012)


This paper deals with the relationship between the VOC government of Ternate (the northern Moluccan spice island) and the Sultan of Ternate in the 18th century. Formally this relationship was that between an overlord (the VOC) and his vassal, the Moluccan ruler. Although this problematic relationship was full of political manipulations and military threat of the local Fort Orange, there was also a political-cultural dimension in the reciprocal relations. In a specific local politico-cultural climate there was space for marks of honour, protocol, ritual exchange of gifts and ceremonial that contributed greatly to conflict prevention. The author argues that the local diplomatic ‘system of contact’, imbued with a feudal relationship, formed the foundation of eighteenth-century Dutch colonialism. The bulk of the gunpowder which John Company ever ignited in Fort Orange in the eighteenth century served no inimical purpose but was in the form of salutes for rulers who happened to sail by. Tea visits, appointment ceremonies, birthday parties in the Company garden all left room for cultural exchanges that promoted a ‘theatrical peace’.

Read the full contents of this paper in PDF (English, 1.3mb) >>


ArtikelHN IIASFull title: New discoveries on Southeast Asia's maritime and diplomatic history 1600-1800

By Dr. Hendrik E. Niemeijer

(© H.E. Niemeijer, March 2015)


This article in the news letter of the 'International Institute of Asian Studies' (IIAS) Niemeijer talks about the website of www.sejarah-nusantara.anri.go.id and the archives of the Dutch Eastindia Company that are published digitally in a collaboration project between The Corts Foundation (TCF) and the Arsip Nasional Republik Indonesia (ANRI).

This website not only shows scans, but also secondary entries to these digitized archival series. In the entries already thousands of diplomatic letters were found that can provide a better understanding of the diplomatic relations between local rulers and the High Government of Batavia. This index of letters is online since the end of 2014 with a geographical visualization and eight relevant articles on individual letters.  

Read the full text of the article in PDF (English, 1mb) >>

The full edition of the news letter of IIAS is also available as PDF-download .




The Corts Foundation

is a Dutch non profit organization that uses the legacy of Kees Corts to perform history and archive projects concerning the former Dutch Indies, especially the period of the Dutch East India company, and end of the colonial period during World War II.





Jakarta, Indonesia
Bangkok, Thailand


also the foundation::
Christiaan G. van Anrooij Fonds









Arsip Nasional Republik Indonesia





National Institute for Military History 






The Corts Foundation provides access to the content of this website, its data sets and owned publications under the creative commons licence.




The Corts Foundation regards the preliminary  recommendations by the SBF as applicable,  described in the code version 3.0

by 24 Dec. 2013